Tula defence operation 1941,24.10-5.12.

October 12, Germans have grasped Kaluga. In this situation Soviet  High Command removed 238th Rifle Division, taking place in Tula, to area of Aleksin city. Soviet Command ordered this forces to defend city and not admit an enemy on a road Moscow - Tula. There were only 732nd Anti-aircraft Regiment and NKVKD forces defending Tula and military factories. October 23, the urban committee of a defense has accepted the decision on formation, from Tula worker, a regiment in structure of 1500 men.

  October 25, German 2nd Panzer Army has broken through a defense of the Soviet forces in Mtsensk area behind the Zusha river and have directed to the Tula highway. In two days the opponent has grasped Plavsk. Forces of 50th Soviet Army, which have lost almost all artillery and the most personnel, slowly departed to Tula.

Under the decision of City Committee of Defence, from October 27, the defensives was: on the left side of the Orel highway - Tula's workers Regiment, on the right side -156th NKVD Regiment. To the left of the worker's Regiment, on the Voronezh highway, was 260th Rifle Division in structure 200 men.

October 29, on a boundary of a defense in area Yasnaya Polyana,  should defensed 290th Rifle Division of 50th Soviet rmy. However, in night of October 30, at approach of enemy tanks it has left a battle boundary and has departed on station in 18 kms to the north-east of Tula.  Yasnaya Polyana, metal factory, Ivanovo Summer residences, Nowo-Basovo were engaged by Germans.

2nd Panzer Army on October 30 came to Tula, but could not rush into the city. Them it have stopped by weak in heavy fights of 50th Army forces. Bravery and courage were boundless. The large role in a defense of city have played also Tula worker's Regiment led by the captain A.P. Gorshkov, 156 Regiment NKVD under command major S.F.Zubkov and 732nd Artillery Regiment. Having met proof resistance of these forces, German tanks could not take city. In the evening on October 30, Soviet 32th Tank Brigade have arrived in Tula, having in the structure five tanks KV, seven -34, 22  -60 and Rifle Battalion with 960 soldiers. The next day German forces have undertaken six attacks, but all of its were repel. October 31, Soviet 154th and 217th Rifle Divisions arrived in city, left from an encirclement. November 5, new 413th Rifle Division from Ural, have arrived in structure of 50th Army.

Weakened in fights Soviet 49th Army of the general Zaharkin occupied two basic sites of a defense by extent more than 80 kms: to the north Oka river it covered a way to Moscow through Serpukhovs, and to the south, in area Aleksin, way to Tula.

Commander of 4th German Field Army marshal Kluge has concentrated 12th Army Corps, intending to break through the right flank of Soviet 49th Army to the northwest of Serpukhovs (area Ugodsky Zavod). In readiness was also 13th Army Corps. November 11, Soviets put counter-attack from area of Serpukhov along the Protva river in flank of 4th German Army. For these purposes used 1st Guard Cavalry Corps of general Belov. The Cavalry Corps, 112th Tank Division of general Getman and formation of 49th Army (415th Rifle Division). November 15, Group of Belov has passed to active actions against the right flank of German 4th Army. Were afraid break, the field marshal Kluge has thrown in fight reserves - two Field and Panzer Divisions. " On this site of front Russians was possible to put Germans heavy losses and by that to prevent offensive of right-wing formations of 4th Field Army ".

November 18, the second stage of operation "Typhoon" on the Tula direction began. The right wing of Germans 4th Field Army and 4th Panzer Group put impact in a direction of Serpukhov, Podolsk, to surround and destroy defending Soviet forces. Per the first day 2nd German Panzer Army, having broken through a defense of 50th Soviet Army, has developed offensive around of Tula from the southeast on Kashira and Kolomna.

Between the left flank of Soviet 50th Army of Western Front and right flank of 3rd Army of Southwest Front the break up to 50 kms was formed. To close this gap, the Soviet High Command has put forward from the reserve 239th Rifle Division, which by active actions has improved the general provisions, but itself has got in an encirclement. The next day German forces have grasped Dedilovo, and November 22- Stalinogorsk.

Under the decision of Soviet Command of Western Front, Venyov battle defensive was created (413th and 29th Rifle and 31th Cavalry Divisions. Venyov city and approaches to it protected by Regiment of 173th Division, two tank brigades. For the third day German 17th Panzer Division, went round the city from the east, have compelled its defence counsels to depart in the northern direction.

The German 18th Panzer Division has grasped Scopin city and advanced on Ryazhsk.This area was on a joint of Soviet Western and Southwest Fronts. On this site have directed forces of 10th Reserve Army, but they were in ways. The road on Ryazan has open. Soviet formations of 84th Sea Rifle Brigade relocatable to Moscow from Volga military district, were landed in Ryazhsk and were directed on clearing of Scopin city. November 22, in 20 kms to the northwest of Ryazhsk Soviet  84th Brigade routed  German 5th Motorized Regiment and November 28, have released Scopin. Soon Soviet formations of 10th Reserve Army came on this defensive.

After Red army leaved Stalinogorsk city the threat of deep break of German Panzer Divisions has arisen in areas Venev, Kashira and Zaraysk. As have shown the further events, for development of success in Kashira area Germans could not allocate large forces: its troop were held down by a defense of Soviet formation in area of Tula. Therefore impact on Kashira was undertaken only by one German Panzer Division. Its advanced group on November 25, has broken to the southern outskirt of city, but here was stopped by Soviet artillery and units of 173th Rifle Division. For this time in Kashira area has came Belov's Cavalry Corps. Having subordinated himself 173th Rifle, 112th Tank Divisions, Corps has put powerful counter-attack and has rejected Germans in Mordves area.

Having sufferred a defeat under Kashira, 2nd German Panzer Army have tried to bypass Tula from the northeast. December 2, Germans again have undertaken attempt to surround Tula. Two German Panzer Divisions of 24th Panzer Corps bypassed city from the northeast; towards, from the west, 43rd Army Corps advanced. Incorporate they owed in Kostrovo area, in 25 kms from Tula. To outcome of December 3, the enemy in Revyakino area cut iron and highway roads of Serpukhov-Tula. By flank impacts of Soviet tank forces and attacks of cavalry from Laptevo area Germans were rejected on initial positions.112th Soviet Tank Division broke Germans forces. The communications, connecting Tula with Moscow, are restored. 


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