калинн.JPG (195806 bytes)Kalinin offensive operation 1941-1942, 5.12-7.1.

By a plan of Soviet High Command the left wing of Kalinin Front put impact by 31st Army from the south of city Kalinin to the Turginovo. This  impact was assistance to rout German front by Soviet 1st Shock Army the general V.I.Kuznetsov. Commander of  front I.S.Konev  was recommended to use for this purpose five rifle divisions, motorized brigade, artillery units of the Main Command Reserves, all artillery systems and tanks.

December 1, the conversation I.S.Konev with chief of a General staff A.M.Vasilevsky concerning the directive on offensive  was held. Commander of Kalinin Front, referring on absence tanks (in 31th Army of Kalinin Front  entered only two separate Tank Battalions:143th and 159th) and shortage of forces (ostensibly 2-3 thousand soldiers in divisions), offered instead of rendering assistance to Western Front to lead local operation on capturing by Kalinin city. After "concrete" discussion of prospective operation I.S.Konev, asking nevertheless to strengthen its front, has assured, that will work how the Main Staff demands, putting impact on Turginovo with the purpose " it is necessary to break through a defense and to leave for rear to the opponent ". With the purposes of strengthening shock group in 31st Army, 262th Rifle Division was transferred from Northwestern Front. Others divisions of 31st Army had the following structure: 246th Rifle Division have 6.800 soldiers, 119th - 7.200, 252th - 5.800, 256th - 6.000. 

Map of Soviet offensive in Kalinin operation (170 KB)

Counter-offensive on Kalinin Front and right wing of Western Front began on December 5-6, more than in a 200-kilometer front line. The combat actions at once have accepted fierce character. Soviet 29th Army of the general I.I.Maslennikov attacked an enemy to the southwest of Kalinin and, cross Volga on ice, wedge in enemy defence on depth of 1-1,5 kms. 31th Army of the general V.A.Yushkevich after three-day time persistent fights broken through  enemy defense on Volga to the south of Kalinin and at December 9,  the railway Kalinin-Moscow was taken under the Soviet control.

December 13, formations of 29th and 31st Armies of the Kalinin Front went on ways of a withdrawal Germans near Kalinin. December 15, after fastened fights for city German garnisons  in Kalinin was broken. The next day Kalinin city was completely cleared. Germans lost, only killed, more than 10 thousand soldier and officers. The Soviet troops have grasped the large trophies.

Taking into account favorable conditions on the western direction, the Soviet High Command has demanded from front's commanders to expand strips of offensive. Kalinin Front has received the order resolutely to develop success on the Rzhev direction. One army of the Westernern Front (30th Army) and one army from a reserve (39th Army ) was transferred to its structure. January 1, 1942 Soviet forces have taken possession of Staritsa city. By January 7, 1942 forces of the Kalinin  Front, overcoming persistent resistance of an enemy, have achieved the Volga river in area of Rzhev. Coming forces, having advanced on 60-120 kms, have released many cities and hundred occupied villages. The armies of front defeated six divisions of  enemy, grasped thus 956 guns and mortars, 153 tanks, 25 airplanes, 3250 cars, 844 machine guns and there is a lot of various military equipment. Weaken German formations withdrawed behind the Volga.


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