Kalinin defence operation 1941, 10.10-4.12,       калинин.jpg (296881 bytes)  

October 10, Germans have renewed offensive on kalinin direction. 

October 12, Germans by two Tank Divisions, one Motorized Division and not less than three infantry divisions, has seized area Sychevka, Zubtsov, continues to develop success offensive in a direction of Kalinin. One tank division in movement to Kalinin, by advanced formations has left on a boundary of 25 kms to the southeast of Staritsa. Soviet Command has made the decision on removal of 29th Army on the northern bank of Volga and covering of a direction to Kalinin. 174th R.D.-defended Staritsa, 256th R.D.- defended on the south outskirt of Kalinin. But these measures appeared void as Soviet units had not time to occupy the places in time.

October 13, offensive against the right wing of Western Front, 3rd Panzer Group and 9th Field Army has broken on Kalinin. The threat of deep detour of Moscow from the north and northwest was created.

"The Report of Military Council of Western Front from 13.10.1941 to the Supreme Commander about destruction German group who has left in Kalinin area.

1. During 14-15.10, beat this group by all aircraft reserve.                      2. Per the same days by five rifle divisions, Homenko's units, persistently defend on outskirts of Kalinin city, not supposing capture it by the opponent. From Bezborodovo area, where today is concentrated motorcycle regiment and rifle regiment, from morning 14.10 to be put forward in area Gorodny, Megevo, whence to begin offensive in a direction Salygino in flank of the opponent. To collect, during two days, group in structure four rifle divisions in area Staritsy, Gorky, whence three rifle divisions to put impact in rear of the opponent in general direction Ryazanovo. Actions of this group from the south to cover with one division. During two days remove from the Northwestern Front 8th Tank Brigade, one rifle division in area Mednoye and put impact to the city. To outcome 14.10, move in area Zavidovo tank brigade from reserve, whence to put impact in interaction with aircraft, motorcycle battalion and rifle regiment in Salygino direction.

To begin operation 16.10. We ask to ratify. Zhukov.

13.10.1941. "

In area to the southeast of Rzhevs, 41st Panzer Corps has made the way along Volga to the northeast and October 14, has rushed in Kalinin. There were hot fights in city streets. Forces of 256th Rifle Division of the general S.G.Goryachev and kalinin group of people guard under command of the general Dolgorukov, rendering fierce resistance, withdrawed in the northwest outskirt of city and kept it till October 17. Attempt of enemy to break from here in flank and in rear of Northwest Front was reflected by operative group of the general N.F.Vatutin.

For covering Moscow from northwest, Soviet High Command on October 17, on the basis of rightwing forces of Western Front has created Kalinin Front. In it structure have come: 22th, 29th, 30th, 31th Armies, and also 183th, 185th, 246th Rifle Divisions, 46th and 54th Cavalry Divisions, 46th Motorize Division and 8th  Tank Brigade. General I.S.Konev was nominated on this front. The persistent resistance of these armies has forced German command to unwrap on this direction significant forces. After formation Kalinin Front armies of  Western Front owed, basing on Mozhaysk defensives line, strongly to cover capital from the west. But front required updating by soldiers and battle engineering.

ORDER COMMANDER ARMIES OF KALININ FRONT TO THE COMMANDERS OF 29th, 31th, 30th and 22nd ARMIES ABOUT TAKE IN OFFENSIVE ARMIES OF FRONT  WITH THE PURPOSE OF ROUTE KALININ GROUPING OF THE OPPONENT.

OCTOBER, 20

...

2. To forces of Kalinin Front... By the main forces surround and destroy a grouping of the opponent in area of Kalinin, between the river Volga and the Moscow sea, and to outcome 21.10 seize Kalinin and not allow a regrouping of the opponent for offensive to the southeast, to Moscow. The beginning of the general offensive 21.10 at 11.00.

3. 22th Army - tasks former.

4. 29th Army (174, 252, 243, 246 Rifle Divisions, 46 Cavalry Division)... 21.10 come in the general direction on Danilovskoe. To outcome of day capture Nekrasovo, Danilovskoe, cut off the opponent's way of a withdrawal on the south and the southwest, to establish interaction with 21th Tank Brigade in area Negotino....

5. 31st Army (119, 133 Rifle Divisions, 8th Tank Brigade, a Motor-brigade) come from the northwest and from the north to Kalinin and in interaction with 30th Army to outcome 21.10 capture south outskirt of Kalinin....

6. 30th Army (256, 5, 185 Rifle Divisions, 21st Tank Brigade, Special Regiment) come from the northwest, south and southwest to Kalinin and to outcome 21.10 capture southern outskirt of city, not supposing a withdrawal of the opponent on the south and a southeast....

COMMANDER FRONT general - colonel KONEV

October 26, Soviet 246th Rifle Division of 29th Army continued offensive to the northeast. 21st Tank Brigade together with 46th Cavalry Division continued come in direction Kurovo, Bortnikovo with a task to cut off a withdrawal of the opponent on the south. Formations of 31st Army (252th and 133th Rifle Divisions) struggle on the northern surburb of Kalinin. Units of 30th Army (256th and 5th Rifle Divisions and 21st T.B.) slowly continue to promote to the southeast of Kalinin. For liquidation of break on the site of 183th Rifle Division defense of 29th Army in area Kunganovo 26.10, from 31st Army was transferred 8th Tank Brigade with a task, following on road Mednoe - Miheevo-Zaboroviy and operating together with 183th and 243th Rifle Divisions to reject the opponent in the southwest direction.

In area Selizharovo on 6.11, Germans by forces of 102nd and 253rd Field Divisions have gone over to the offensive on a site of  249th R.D. of 22nd Army with the purpose of capture Selizharov defensive area.

From 6.11, Germans creates a grouping (86th, 162nd and 85th Field Divisions) in area Pushkino, Lotoshino with the purpose of impact in a joint of Western and Kalinen Fronts and the further offensive to Klin.

November, 9 Germans have made break and have grasped Selizharovo. Soviet Command had no more forces for liquidation of this break .

German offensive on Moscow begine on November 15, by 3rd Panzer Group of the general Got on a line between the Moscow sea and Klin.

Despite of persistent resistance, Soviet 30th Army could not reflect impact of superior Germans forces. Its front was broken through. Next day Germans were possible to detain at the rightbank of the Volga on a boundary Gorodny, but to the south of the Volga they forced the Llama river and have grasped Doronino, Pokrovskoe. 30th Army battled by isolated groups: 5th Army beyond the Volga, in 20-50 kms to the south of Kalinin, 21st Tank Brigade, 2nd Motorized and 20th Regiments on the southern bank of the Volga, 107th Motorifle Division fighted in an encirclement in area Grishkino, Teryaeva Sloboda.

Trying to develop success on kalinin direction, Germans were move on Torzhok, but could not overcome resistance of 22th Army of the general V.I.Vostruhova. Only on one site they have pressed 249th Rifle Division. In October, 9th Field Army and the main forces of 3rd Panzer Group were compelled to proceed a defense, though kept Kalinin city and cut off the "October" Railway.


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