MOSCOW DEFENCE

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The Orel-Bryansk operation (30.9-23.10.1941). September 30 1941, 2nd Panzer Group from area Shostka-Gluhov impact on Sevsk in rear front of 13th  Soviet Army. 2nd German Army, having broken through defense of 50th Soviet Army, moved on Bryansk and to rear of 3rd Soviet Army. October 3, the German forces have grasped Orel and have tried to develop offensive along a highway Orel-Tula.

For covering the Orel-Tula direction, Soviet High Commands has put forward from the reserve 1st Guards Rifle Corps, having strengthened it by Tank Brigades, air group, Radio Regiment and several other special formations. This Corps was maintained by general-major  D.D.Llushenko. The Corps owed not later October 5, will be concentrated in area Mtsenks, Otrada, Cherny. By October 6, defence line of Bryansk Front was broken through in three places. In October 6,  Bryansk is engaged. 3th, 13th and partially 50th Soviet Armies of Bryansk Front have appeared in encirclement.

Vyazma defence operation (2-13.10). In October 2, the main force Group of armies "Centre" attack Soviet Western and Reserve Fronts from areas Roslavl and Duhovshina. Having closed on October 6, to the west of Vyazma, Germans have surrounded 16th, 19th and 20th  Armies of Western Front both 24th and 32th Armies of Reserve Front. The forces which have stayed outside the encirclement, also have carried heavy losses. The part of  them departed on the northeast, to Kalinin  (Kalinin defence operation (10.10-4.12.1941)), part to uncompleted Mozhaysk defence line (Mozhaysk defence operation (10-30.10)). Before German armies unobstructed, way on Moscow was opened.

The triumph chiefs of  Reich has appeared premature. Again, as well as per summer months of 1941 the surrounded Soviet forces did not think of delivery, and continued combat with not weakening persistence. The encirclemented formations of Bryansk Front  break through, having detained thus, offensive of German 2nd Panzer Group to the northeast from Orel. By October 23, all three Soviet Armies have made the way from an encirclement and have occupied a defence on new boundaries. As a result of persistent resistance units of Bryansk Front, Germans  was not possible rush into Tula (Tula defence operation (24.10-5.12)). Having received a respite, the defence counsels of a city - arsenal have transformed town into the strong fortress.

Under Vyazma, situation have accepted heavier event. Germans have managed to create around of the Soviet forces a dense ring. But surrounded Soviet soldiers, under commander the general - lieutenant M.F.Lukin continued struggle. For Wehrmacht, the counter-attack surrounded divisions was complete unexpectedness. Germans, probably considered, that if  enemy formations  are surrounded and carried significant losses, they are not so dangerous. And suddenly these regiments and battalions have found in themselves force and went forward in the east direction. Escape from Vyazma encirclement was not possible. The majority surrounded were lost, or, having remained without an ammunition, were compelled to surrender in captivity. Under the Germans information, near Vyazma was seized 663 thousand Soviet prisoners of war. It seemed, Wehrmacht has achieved one more grandiose success. But for liquidation of the surrounded grouping, commander of group of armies  "Centre"  was necessary to allocate 28 divisions.

From the remnants of Western and Reserve Fronts, and also units of a reserve from Far East, new Western front was generated. New commander of this front was Zhukov. Former commander, the general - colonel I.S.Konev, hardly has avoided arrest: Stalin was going to fall down on him the responsibility for failures, as in June- on Pavlov. By his rescue, Konev was obliged Zhukov, which has insisted to assignment discharged from commander of the general by the assistant.

In one week Konev was nominated commander of new, Kalinin Front created from formations of Western and Reserve Fronts, stayed to the north of German impacts. Further, during all war he commanded fronts, became Marshal of the Soviet Union and Award of a Victory, has come in number of the largest commanders of  WW2 alongside with G.K. Zhukov, A.M. Vasilevskiy, K.K. Rokosovskiy.

To the middle of October, the German armies stop near Mozhaysk defence line and as a result of heavy fights have broken through it. By the end of October the line of front was established on a boundary: Kalinin Volokolamsk Kubinka Naro-Fominsk Serpukhov Tarusa Aleksin Tula.

October 27, the German armies carried large losses in troops and engineering, stop  for a regrouping before last offensive to Moscow. Official German propagation has informed, that "the offensive temporarily is suspended because of weather ".


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